CIVILIAN RESISTANCE IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA
In the late 1960's Czechoslovakia was still part of the Eastern Bloc—essentially a satellite of the Soviet Union—but was beginning to show a certain degree of independence. At the Thirteenth Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party in 1966 a radical new economic policy was introduced. Steps were taken that could lead to the separation of the Communist Party from the State government. Writers and intellectuals were demanding an end to censorship and more freedom to travel abroad.
The reformers gained ground, and in early 1968 Ludvik Svoboda was installed as President and Alexander Dubcek made head of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party. Press censorship and travel restrictions were abolished. Plans were made for open elections, free trade, and economic reforms. Czechoslovakia became the most liberal Communist state in the world. Czechoslovakians reveled in their newfound freedom. The resulting euphoria and blooming of creativity was known as the "Prague Spring."
This train of events deeply disturbed the Soviets and the other Warsaw Pact countries. After some tense negotiations a compromise was worked out. Reforms could continue, but at a slower pace. Everyone in Czechoslovakia breathed a little easier.
However, the Soviets were still not satisfied. Late at night on August 20, 1968, they struck like lightning, initiating a massive invasion of their wayward ally. By the morning of the 21st Czechoslovakia was inundated with tanks and troops from East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the U.S.S.R. Within a week there were over a half million Warsaw Pact troops in the country. In Prague alone 500 tanks controlled strategic locations.
The Soviets had planned to crush any military resistance, install a puppet government, and begin withdrawing within four days. The invading troops were well prepared to counter any resistance the small Czechoslovakian army might offer. But the Czechoslovakian army was surprised and completely unprepared for an invasion by allies, and was ordered by the Czech government not to fight. This was an unfortunate turn of events for the invaders, because they were completely unprepared for the kind of resistance they were to encounter.
The troops had been told they would be welcomed with open arms by the Czechoslovakian workers. Instead, they were booed, taunted, spit at, and jeered. Initially there was some violence, as angry kids set tanks on fire and threw paving stones and Molotov cocktails at the troops. But radio and TV stations denounced the violence and called for "passive" resistance instead. Over the next couple of weeks these clandestine broadcasters coordinated the civilian resistance that prevented the Soviets from taking control of the country.
CIVILIAN RESISTANCE STORIES
At 9:00 am on August 26, people all over Czechoslovakia rang church bells, blew horns and sounded sirens to protest the invasion. The din frightened some of the nervous occupation troops, who shot a woman in Klarov and roughed up an engineer in Prague who was sounding his train whistle. Sirens and horns also announced the beginning of one-hour general strikes in Prague. Soviet tank crews watched helplessly as motorists blew their horns and all traffic stopped.
Citizens in a small village in Eastern Bohemia formed a human chain across a bridge and blockaded a Russian convoy of tanks and other vehicles. After eight and a half hours the Russians turned back.
THE LOST TRAIN
The Czechoslovakians discovered that a Russian freight train was transporting equipment to jam pirate radio broadcasts. A radio station put out an appeal for rail workers to stop the train. It never made it to Prague. First the train was delayed when the electricity failed, then it ended up on a side track stuck between two other immobilized locomotives. The Soviets eventually had to transport the gear by helicopter.
In Bratislava a group of young people gathered up boxes of "girlie" magazines that had recently become available from the West. They went to a park and handed them out to the lonely Soviet tank crews that were keeping watch over the area. After a while the commander realized what was happening and ordered his men back into their tanks. The kids joked that the soldiers, who had been abused by the local Slovaks for the last few days, were now abusing themselves. With the soldiers sealed inside their tanks, the kids then stuck paper over their periscopes, making it impossible for the Soviets to continue their surveillance.
THE CASTLE AT BRATISLAVA
Some Russian troops took up residence in an old castle in Bratislava. The castle housed a museum. The museum curator asked the Russian colonel if he could check the exhibits to make sure they were unharmed. The colonel readily granted him permission for an inspection. When the curator was left alone he sneaked down into the basement and turned off the main water valve. When the soldiers found they had no water, they had to look for it elsewhere. But mysteriously, much of the water in the rest of Bratislava had somehow been cut off as well. Finding potable water became a serious problem for the troops, and for several days it had to be brought in from Hungary by helicopter.
The Soviet tank crews had brought powdered rations that needed to be mixed with water. In Bratislava, when they tried to fill their canteens with public tap water, the Slovaks gathered around and warned them that "counter-revolutionaries" had poisoned the water supplies. Some soldiers resorted to scooping up water from puddles, or getting it from the heavily polluted Danube River.
The troops were expecting a warm reception from the Slovaks and brought few supplies and facilities with them. The lack of food, sleep and proper sanitation took its toll. Drinking polluted water added to their distress and many soldiers became ill.
The people who lived in Roznava, a small town in eastern Slovakia, were mostly of Hungarian decent. Hence the Soviets decided to send in Hungarian troops, confident that they would receive a warm welcome. Instead, the soldiers were spit at and booed. The citizens of Roznava refused to provide the troops with food, water, supplies or lodging.
Desperate, the Hungarian colonel had a meeting with the mayor. They finally came to an agreement. The troops would receive the supplies they needed and could stay at a temporarily unoccupied school. However, they would be forced to obey the town's curfew. So each day at nightfall the Hungarian occupiers returned to the school so the mayor could lock them inside. Then at dawn the mayor would come back to let them out again.
The electronic media—radio and television—played a key role in the resistance. It was able to create a sense of solidarity and hope by keeping citizens informed about what was happening in other parts of the country. This underground news media broadcast Czech government appeals and made suggestions on how to resist the invaders, while urging people to remain nonviolent. The amazing thing is that none of this was planned beforehand. All broadcasting arrangements were continually improvised and varied to prevent detection.
The Russians had a hard time closing down all the television stations because broadcasting facilities were dispersed throughout Prague. Clandestine TV broadcasts were also done from factories and other buildings using mobile and remote transmitters. For instance, on the day of the invasion television workers escaped with a remote broadcast truck. They then set up a studio in an empty apartment building in the Prague suburbs. From there broadcasts were beamed all over the country using microwave links. The on-air personalities—well-known newscasters, athletes, intellectuals and other Czech celebrities—all urged nonviolent resistance and noncooperation.
Clandestine radio stations were even more important than television because there were more of them and they were easier to hide. Mobile transmitters, supplied by the Czech army, were moved every few hours to avoid detection by Soviet tracking equipment. The army also helped transport audiotapes, which were recorded in secret locations, to the radio transmitters.
The Czechs made good use of graffiti to make the invaders feel unwelcome. They hung posters and used chalk or paint to apply anti-Soviet slogans to the walls of buildings. A common activity was to climb on a tank while it was stopped at a traffic light and paint a swastika on it.
Some slogans seen in Prague:
"Why bother to occupy our State Bank? You know there is nothing in it."
"United States in Vietnam, Soviet Union in Czechoslovakia."
"Leonid, send 10 more tanks—20 more counter-revolutionaries arrived here today."
"An elephant can not swallow a hedgehog."
THE UNDERGROUND PRESS
The Czechoslovakians, using printing presses and mimeograph machines (photocopiers were unheard of in 1968), published leaflets, pamphlets and newspapers right under the noses of the occupiers. Soviet troops shot some kids who were distributing clandestine newspapers. Hundreds of people attended their funerals.
LOST IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Traveling in Czechoslovakia was a nightmare for the Warsaw Pact troops. The Czechs had removed street signs and painted over building address numbers. Many small villages renamed themselves "Dubcek" or "Svoboda." In rural areas it was not uncommon to see a troop convoy stalled at a crossroad, the commander scratching his head over an open map.
THE MOSCOW AGREEMENT
On the leadership level the Soviets met more resistance for their plans to set up a puppet government. Top Czechoslovakian officials refused to corroborate the Soviet's story that the troops had been invited in to put down an uprising of "counter-revolutionaries." Because of the near unanimous civilian resistance throughout the country, even conservative leaders were reluctant to collaborate with the Soviets, and no one could be found to form a puppet government that had a facade of legitimacy.
Government bodies continued to meet right under the noses of the Warsaw Pact occupiers. Many of these secret gatherings were coordinated by pirate radio broadcasts. The Czechoslovak Communist Party Congress, the National Assembly, and many of the remaining government officials all denied the legitimacy of the Soviet's actions, demanded the withdraw of troops, and encouraged nonviolent resistance by the population.
Dubcek and several other high officials were taken to the Soviet Union to be executed as soon as a new government could be put in place. Svoboda was at first placed under house arrest in Prague and pressured to cooperate, but he refused. A couple of days after the invasion the Soviets flew him to Moscow to work out a compromise. Svoboda refused to negotiate unless Dubcek was present. When the Soviets finally brought Dubcek into the meeting he was still tied up.
The Soviet leaders seemed to temporarily abandon their plan to install a new regime, and instead worked on pressuring the legitimate government to change its ways. At the Moscow meeting the Soviets used threats and demanded cooperation in no uncertain terms. The Czechoslovakian leaders stood their ground. In the end a vague agreement was worked out which scrapped many of the reforms, but left the legitimate government leaders, including Svoboda and Dubcek, still in office.
When Czechoslovakians heard about the Moscow Agreement many were outraged. They felt their leaders had sold them out. Demoralization began to set in. Gradually the clandestine printing presses and radio stations were found by the Soviets and closed down. Throughout the next few months scattered dissent continued in the form of factory resolutions, demonstrations and the occupation of university buildings. But generally the intense resistance of the first few weeks after the invasion slowly turned into a disgruntled complacency.
Their military tactics having failed, the Soviets began to use political manipulation, economic pressure and subtle threats against the Czechoslovakian leadership to chip away at the reform movement. The Czech government made more and more concessions to the Soviet demands. Finally in April 1969 anti-Russian riots (which may have been instigated by agents provocateurs) created a shift in power in the Czechoslovakian government. Dubcek and his reformers were ousted. Eight months after the invasion the Soviets finally got the conservative government they wanted in Czechoslovakia.
The story of Czechoslovakia in 1968 is a testament to the power of civilian resistance and the limitations of military force. Even when the country was bristling with Warsaw Pact troops and military equipment, in no way could it be said that the Soviets were in control of Czechoslovakia. If it had fought, the highly trained Czechoslovakian army would only have lasted a couple days, and then the country would surely have come firmly under Soviet control. Instead, an improvised campaign of noncooperation kept the Soviets from installing their puppet government for eight months!
The Czechoslovakians could have been even more effective in their resistance if they had seen it as an integrated strategy rather than as a series of spontaneous actions. Pre-planning would have enabled them to start the resistance earlier, avoid violence (that occurred mainly on the first day), and coordinate their actions for maximum effect. The leaders should have gone underground when the invasion first began so they would have been available to coordinate the resistance and inspire their fellow citizens. If that were not possible, they should have resigned rather than accepting the unfavorable terms of the Moscow Agreement. That would have left the country without legitimate leadership. The ball would have then been in the Soviet's court to find authorities that had credibility with the population.
If the Czechoslovakian people and their leaders had continued their defiance in a determined and coordinated fashion, there is every likelihood that they could have created serious internal problems for the Soviet Union. At the time some experts speculated that there were major differences of opinion within the Kremlin hierarchy, not only about Czechoslovakia, but also about the reform issue itself. It was known that there were officials who favored instituting exactly the kinds of reforms for the Soviet Union that the Dubcek government had been implementing. (In fact, twenty years later Gorbachev did create similar changes, which ultimately resulted in the disintegration of the Soviet system and the subsequent fall of Communism in Eastern Europe.) In any event, it's possible that a crisis resulting from continued resistance in Czechoslovakia may have served to exacerbate policy differences in the Soviet government, weakening it politically and strengthening the Czechoslovakian bargaining position.
All bureaucratic and hierarchical organizations have fault lines that make them vulnerable to nonviolent strategies. The (mostly) men who comprise these bureaucracies are typically very competitive and aggressive (or they wouldn't be there). In such groups there are always officials who don't like each other personally, who feel they have been snubbed or stabbed in the back by some fellow politician and are looking for revenge. There are always jealousies, insecurities, divergent goals and philosophies.
That natural divisions are a major vulnerability of all bureaucratic and hierarchical structures is a fact that should not be lost on those of us interested in developing strategies to overthrow such organizations. A major strategic concern when planning a campaign of resistance should be finding ways to drive wedges in the cracks that naturally occur in these organizations. It's the old divide and conquer strategy, and it has often been a decisive a factor in successful nonviolent campaigns. The tendency to create dissension in the opponent's ranks is a unique strength of nonviolent tactics. On the other hand, when faced with violence groups tend to band together and increase solidarity.
Many believe that it may be possible to use nonviolent strategies to defend a country against internal coups and foreign invasions. In fact, a number of small countries are researching the possibility of using carefully planned programs of civilian noncooperation either to supplement their military defense capabilities, or as a stand-alone system. In the U.S. it is called Civilian-Based Defense (CBD); Europeans call it Social Defense.
A prerequisite for instituting CBD in a large capitalist country like the U.S. would be the radical transformation of society itself—to the point where it would no longer be a large capitalist country. It would require major revisions in the way we think about security, defense, consumerism and social equality.
First of all, CBD can only defend societies, not territory. It cannot project power around the globe like a large military machine can. If we wish to maintain our extravagant and exploitive lifestyles (and most Americans do, make no mistake about it), we must have the capability to keep our "colonies" and client states in line, because they provide us with resources and cheap labor.
Another problem is that the U.S., like most large countries, is really made up of smaller nations that have been fused together through that violent process called "nation building." As a result, there are many surviving ethnic and cultural differences. Most capitalist countries also have major disparities in economic classes. Since rock-solid solidarity is one of the most important elements in successful nonviolent struggle, it's possible that the U.S. would not be able to withstand the violent repression and divisive pressures of a long struggle.
It should be noted that Czechoslovakia was not ethnically unified either. Consequently, it separated into two countries (the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) in 1993, soon after the pressures of Soviet hegemony were released. If the Czechoslovakians had chosen to wage a long campaign of noncooperation in 1968, it is likely that the Soviets would have exploited these divisions to their own advantage.
A more practicable application of nonviolence might be to defend small communities of people who share common values and deep bonds. Such entities would become even more difficult to subdue by traditional military means if they were to form mutual defense pacts and coalitions with other small communities in their area, depriving any potential enemy of a regional base of support.
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The Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia
Photographs and documents from the 1968 invasion.